Ultrasound is an imaging test done to obtain images of the internal body organs. The test uses sound waves to form the images, and the results are used to know the root causes of several medical conditions. Be it inflammation of the liver or an infection in the kidney, an ultrasound can diagnose almost any medical condition.
It is widely used to monitor the fetus of a pregnant woman and record the progress and detect any deformities or complications.
What is Ultrasound?
An ultrasound is a noninvasive test and has no side effects. Often, it is called sonography too. It is essentially a diagnostic tool with which heart diseases, liver complications, kidney failure and other severe medical conditions are assessed and diagnosed.
During an ultrasound, high-frequency sound waves are employed to create an accurate image of the organ. This is made possible with an advanced tool that is placed on your body. Only in rare cases, a device is put inside the body. The results form the foundation of treatment in many cases.
This is an ultrasound imaging process where a Doppler signal is employed. The process is beneficial in depicting moving materials. Thus, it is used for recording blood flow in blood vessels and the movement of other substances in the body with accuracy.
The technique is sensitive to slow motion, unlike the conventional colour Doppler ultrasound methodology. Hence, in addition to the form of inflamed organs where the assessment of blood flow is crucial, Power Doppler is beneficial for getting detailed images of the kidney cortex, the prepubertal testis, and the hips of infants.
Eye and Orbit ultrasound
This type of ultrasound is also called echography, orbital ultrasonography and ocular ultrasonography. The test is taken in order to examine the eye area. It is mostly prescribed to cataract patients. Since the ultrasound machine has to be placed directly against the eye surface, the eye is given an anesthetic before the process.
The Eye and Orbit ultrasound has two types, scan A and scan B. While scan A is helpful in knowing what power lens must be utilised before a cataract operation, the B scan gives a view of the insides of the eye. Scan B is mostly used to analyse tumours or other eye disorders.
Transvaginal Sonography (TVS) Ultrasound
A transvaginal sonography is also known as endovaginal ultrasound. This ultrasound is conducted in the pelvic region of women, mostly during pregnancy. During this sonography, the transducer is inserted into the vagina (hence the name transvaginal).
The cervix, fallopian tubes and ovaries alongside the uterus and vagina are examined in the Transvaginal Sonography (TVS) Ultrasound for the following purposes:
- Detection of ovarian cysts
- Identify the cause of pelvic pain
- Confirm infertility
- Check the UID placement
- Examine the progress of the fetus
- Diagnose for abnormalities
- Find the cause of vaginal bleeding
- Conduct an ectopic gestation
Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS)
Transrectal ultrasound is conducted to view the internal condition of the prostate gland. A video image is constructed via the readings of the sound waves.
The Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS) is another type of ultrasound where the ultrasound wand is placed inside the body of the patient, the rectal cavity in this case. However, no anesthesia is given since TRUS is painless.
TRUS is used as an alternative to DRE to catch a glimpse of certain tumours which the latter cannot detect. Additionally, it is used during prostate biopsies for better accuracy.
Soft tissue ultrasound
Also called soft tissue mass ultrasound, this ultrasound is executed via placing an ultrasound wand on the body of the patient and takes no more than 30 minutes. The areas which are assessed by the sound waves are soft tissues lumps, lymph, nodes, and bumps that occur anywhere on the body.
The soft tissues ultrasound is prescribed by a practitioner to gather in-depth knowledge of:
- The mass' structure
- The effect on the surrounding areas of the mass
- Infections like cellulitis and abscess
- Cysts and lymph
This test particularly requires steady handling of the machine.
This ultrasonography is commonly called kidney ultrasound. The ultrasound is suggested to get a clearer knowledge of complications in the kidney in particular. The bladder is also examined in renal ultrasonography, in addition to the pair of the kidney.
The renal ultrasound can be conducted in two parts when the practitioner finds it relevant to examine the bladder before and after urination, i.e., both in a filled and emptied state. In such a scenario, you are asked to arrive with a full bladder and later relieve it after the first examination for the second ultrasound.
Renal Artery Doppler Ultrasound or Renal Doppler
Doppler ultrasound, as discussed in the previous section, is instrumental in creating a more authentic and accurate view of the internal organs. For the kidney, using Renal Artery Doppler Ultrasound or Renal Doppler is profoundly important for the inspection of perfused renal arteries.
The examination is suggested for patients with high blood pressure since it can constrict the blood vessels in the kidney. Owing to the Doppler signal's sensitivity to the movement of blood in the vascular tissues, catching the abnormalities in the kidney at the early stages becomes more viable.
Carotid artery Doppler or Carotid Doppler
A carotid artery Doppler ultrasound uses Doppler signals for the inspection of the neck's blood circulation, mainly of the arteries, to find a blood clot, aka thrombus. The test is vital since the arteries present in the neck are the brain's only blood supply channels.
The blockage in the vessels can be detected using Carotid artery Doppler or Carotid Doppler examination with ease. Hence, the test is suggested when a patient is suspected to be vulnerable to a brain stroke. The test hardly takes about half an hour and is painless.
The veins are a type of blood vessel where deoxygenated blood flows under low pressure. An abnormality like a clot in them can lead to severe heart diseases. Thus, a Venous ultrasound is significant for tracing them and making an early diagnosis.
The test helps in the following ways:
- It provides the basis for PICCs (Placement of peripherally inserted central catheters)
- The placement of peripheral IV in obese patients or those who have been scarred from an IV procedure or any treatment.
- Mapping out veins
- Diagnosis of venous stasis, tumours in vascular tissues, etc.
The arteries are the blood vessels that bear the responsibility of carrying the oxygenated blood. The blood travels under high pressure in these channels. The process of imaging these vessels and their activities through sound waves is called an arterial ultrasound or artery ultrasound.
The ultrasound is instrumental in giving an idea of the condition of the arteries present in the arms or the legs to the doctor. It is used for the following:
- Devising the treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) through invasive procedures.
- Monitoring any post-surgery block in the arteries.
Doppler ultrasonography of the upper/lower extremity arteries or arterial doppler
An arterial doppler is more precise and elaborative than a general ultrasound of the arterial system. It is conducted in the upper part, i.e., in the arms or in the lower parts, i.e., the legs, to assess the flow of blood in the blood vessels without having to use any complex and painful invasive method.
A Doppler ultrasonography of the upper/lower extremity arteries or arterial doppler is used for the following purposes:
- Diagnosis of arteriosclerosis in the arteries
- Detecting thrombosis, i.e., blood clotting.
- Gain knowledge of the severity of artery injuries.
Doppler ultrasonography of the upper/lower extremity veins or Venous Doppler
A venous Doppler test is beneficial when the doctor needs to examine the flow of the blood in the veins of a patient. Although the analysis takes less than 30 minutes, a maximum of 45 minutes are required for a thorough examination.
A Doppler ultrasonography of the upper/lower extremity veins or Venous Doppler test is useful for:
- Diagnosis of superficial thrombophlebitis
- Detecting phlebitis or deep vein thrombosis
If you had surgery, were immobile for too long or had a severe injury in the arm or the legs, the ultrasound is suggested.
Ultrasound – Musculoskeletal
Ultrasound of the musculoskeletal system is suggested for getting real-time pictures of the patient's joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves in addition to the muscles and tissues. The imaging process is highly substantial for the diagnosis of disorders that involve muscle inflammation or tumours. Other medical conditions requiring the test are:
- Tendon tears
- Achilles tendon
- Muscle tears or injuries.
- Collection of fluid in the muscle tissues.
- A sprain in ligaments
- Effusion in the joints
- Carpal tunnel syndrome
- Ganglion cysts and hernia
- Detecting splinters or glass pieces that might have invaded the skin after an accident
Breast and Axilla Ultrasound
The breast ultrasound is a blessing for many. It is a safer and painless process for diagnosing breast cancer in comparison to mammography.
A Breast and Axilla Ultrasound construct in-depth images of the tissues and other structures present in the breast. However, it is mostly suggested after mammography.
Besides being a diagnostic test for cancer, it is also employed to detect lymph nodes, cysts and lesions in the breasts. Additionally, during the biopsy of the breasts, the ultrasound functions as a directing tool by giving real-time images of the organs.
This is an ultrasound for the prostate gland which is present in the rectum. The main objective of the imaging is to determine the size of the prostate gland as well as the condition of the surrounding organs.
The prostate ultrasound is used for the diagnosis of cancer as well as during cancer treatment procedures for more accuracy. Additionally, the ultrasound can help guide tissue sample biopsies.
The ultrasound is harmless and can only cause slight discomfort in the rectal cavity since the ultrasound receiver is inserted in the rectum.
KUB stands for Kidney Ureters and bladder. Thus, this is the ultrasonography of these three organs. Before this ultrasound testing, you do not have to take any major precautions or do any overnight fasting.
A KUB Ultrasound is prescribed by doctors for detecting any abnormality in the bladder's linings or walls or for evaluating the causes of recurring bladder or kidney infections in addition to identifying the underlying causes of pain in the abdominal area. The ultrasound is also instrumental in the diagnosis of kidney stones in the urinary tract.
Pre Void and Post Void screening
When you complain of conditions like pain during urination, blood in urine, inability to urinate or dark urine, the doctor can suggest a pre void and post void screening, which is essentially a sonographic imaging test where the bladder is screened when it is full and empty.
For this type of screening, you will have to drink at least 80 ml of water an hour before the test so that your bladder is full at the time of testing. You are asked to empty it soon after for the next screening.
Gynecologic ultrasonography or gynecologic sonography
This is often called transabdominal sonography. The ultrasound is conducted in women to examine the adnexa, which includes the ovaries, fallopian tubes and the vascular tissues present in the organs, the uterus and the cervical area, which includes the vagina and the bladder. Mostly, a Gynecologic ultrasonography or gynecologic sonography demands a full bladder since it is conducive to better image formation. The test is used for:
- Detecting the position and size of ovarian cysts
- Determine a lesion
- Evaluating endometrium and myometrium in the uterine.
- Monitoring the development of the fetus.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a disorder that largely affects women. It can cause hypertension and even infertility in women. PCOs screening involves several blood tests alongside an ultrasound of the pelvic region for proper diagnosis and medication.
An ultrasound of the pelvic region or the ovaries can provide a direction in the diagnosis even though it is not alone capable of diagnosing the syndrome. The results of the ultrasound are used to see the structure of the ovaries and the uterus' walls' thickness. Any abnormality is further assessed through tests.
Also called lower back ultrasound, it is an ultrasound where the transducer is placed in the body of the patient for examination. There are two ways of conducting the test, either via the vagina or through the abdominal cavity.
The Pelvic ultrasound is given for:
- Determining the shape and size of the ovaries and uterus in addition to their location.
- Checking the thickness of the endometrium, myometrium and the fallopian tubes in addition to the echogenicity.
- Check if any fluid or lump has formed in the pelvic or abdominal region
This ultrasound is conducted in pregnant women. The womb is screened with a transducer to generate sonographic images of the baby. An obstetric ultrasound also involves imaging of the ovaries.
The test is conducted from time to time during pregnancy to ensure that the baby is growing healthily. Other than monitoring the embryo, this ultrasound is used for confirming pregnancy and calculating the age of the embryo. Determining the position of the placenta is another common usage of this screening.
Fetal echocardiography is used in medical sciences to investigate the heart of a fetus and determine the severity of the heart problem. The Fetal echo is part of Fetal echocardiography through which an image is formed during the ultrasound technique.
Typically, the echocardiography of the fetus is conducted between the 18th and 24th week of pregnancy and is carried out by placing the transducer on the belly of the mother. In some cases, the testing is done through the vagina.
The screening is used for assessing the development of the fetus in the prenatal stage. It is only used for knowing if the conceived baby has down syndrome, trisomy 18 or any other condition that will interfere with the neurotypical development of the child post-birth.
Prenatal screening for determining the sex of the child is often deemed to be illegal in many states taking the rampant female foeticide into cognizance. Hence, the screening is mainly used for informing about trisomy only.
After every 3 months of pregnancy, an ultrasound is prescribed for tracking the growth and development of the baby (fetus). While the first screening has an ultrasound as well as one blood test of the mother to detect any abnormalities in the pregnancy, the second trimester screening entails several more blood tests.
The last screening is aimed at examining the placenta, in addition to confirming adequate oxygen supply for the baby. If abnormalities are reported in the screenings, ultrasounds are conducted on a more regular basis.
3D/4D ultrasounds of baby
Regular ultrasounds show accurate images of the baby before birth, but they are usually two dimensional. Parents can, however, opt for a 3D/ 4D ultrasound of the baby to get more advanced imaging. The 3D/4D ultrasounds of babies can also help get a more precise image of the defects in the pregnancy.
In a 3D ultrasound, the image comes in a 3-dimensional format. By a 4D sonography, you receive a video of the baby inside the womb. This sonography can let you see the subtle movements of the baby.
Twin Pregnancy scan
Under special circumstances, a woman gets pregnant with two fetuses. You might start to suspect this if you have a bigger bump than you expected. To confirm this, a twin Pregnancy scan is done via sonography techniques after the 10 to 14 weeks of pregnancy.
The testing does no harm to the fetus or the mother, thus, you do not have to worry.
The Targeted Imaging For Fetal Anomalies Scan or the Fetal Anomaly Scan is crucial during the pregnancy. Without it, you cannot know about congenital abnormalities.
Done after the 18th week of pregnancy, an anomaly/TIFFA scan can be 3D or 4D ultrasound test and be instrumental for checking the level of amniotic fluid as well as checking chromosomal anomalies
Nuchal Translucency Scan (NT Scan)
An NT scan happens after 3 months of pregnancy. It is an ultrasound that sees the nuchal translucency, i.e., the clear tissue of the fetus at the neck.
If the Nuchal Translucency Scan (NT Scan) detects an abnormal amount of fluid in the neck or the area has too much clear space, chances are that the fetus has a chromosome abnormality.
In the third trimester screening, i.e. around the 30th week of pregnancy, to simply see the physical development of the fetus, the mother is asked to undergo a growth scan. The baby's weight is measured, in addition to the dimensions of the body part. Additionally, the placenta's maturity is evaluated during the scan.
Sometimes, you might be required to screen the heartbeat of the baby in the womb. This can be done efficiently via a fetal Doppler ultrasound where the heat beat's motion is used to create a sonographic image. The test is critical to know if the baby has any heart complications or not.
USG Abdominal Ultrasound
The abdominal ultrasound test is generally performed to assess the health of the major organs of the abdominal cavity of the human body. The ultrasound can be helpful in the examination of various organs including
- The spleen
An ultrasound test isn't only for women, however, but also for men, specifical men over 65 who are or were regular smokers. smoking.
For these men, an ultrasound can assist in identifying the abdominal aneurysm of the aortic. If you are experiencing symptoms like,
- Organs that are larger
- Kidney blockage
- Liver cancer
- Abnormal uterine structure
- Abnormal foetus structure
- Internal tumour
An ultrasound is a recommendation from the physician. The images of ultrasound aid in diagnosing and treating medical issues.
It could be used for:
- Find the cause of abdominal pain.
- Look for problems and spot damage, disease, or a cancerous tumour within the organ
- Examine the shape, size and orientation of the organ
3D ultrasound is a cutting-edge technology for an ultrasound that converts sound waves into 3D images. The Four-Dimensional (4D) ultrasound can be described as a 3-dimensional ultrasound when in motion. This is why it is referred to as "real-time live 3D.
In females, USG sonography can help the doctor identify any issues that are associated with
- Check for the presence of cancers within the abdomen organs
- Make sure you are wearing an IUD.
- Check for any fertility issues
- Check the growth of your baby during the course of pregnancy
- Check for any signs of inflammation within the pelvic region.
- Check for kidney stones
- Learn more about the possibility of an Ectopic pregnancy
In males, a urinary ultrasound can help identify kidney stones. It is also in a position to detect any light-up in the bladder. The USG test price is somewhat high in comparison to blood tests. Find out more about the USG cost in your region when you search online for "USG test near me". The cost of ultrasound sonography tests is less at some laboratories run by the government.
The two most popular types of ultrasounds are:
Abdominal ultrasound: It gives a visual of organs and other structures within the abdomen. It can be used to determine:
- Abdominal aorta as well as other blood vessels that are located in the abdomen
Pelvic Ultrasound Imaging
Ultrasound imaging is a non-invasive medical test that assists doctors to diagnose and treating medical issues. It's painless and safe. It creates images of the inside of your body by using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging can also be referred to as sonography. It is a procedure that uses a tiny probe known as a transducer and gel which is directly placed to the surface of the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted through the gel to the body. The probe is able to collect the sounds which bounce back. A computer utilizes these sound waves to make an image. Ultrasound exams do not use radiation (x-rays). Because ultrasound records images in real-time, it is able to demonstrate the structure and the movement of organs in the body's internal structures. Images may also show blood flow in blood vessels.
There are three kinds of pelvic ultrasounds:
- Abdominal ( transabdominal)
- vaginal (transvaginal/endovaginal) for women
- Rectal ( transrectal) for males
- A Doppler ultrasound test could make up a part of pelvic ultrasound test. Doppler ultrasound is a unique ultrasound procedure that analyzes the motion of the materials within the body. It allows doctors to observe and assess blood flow in veins and arteries throughout the body.
The Pelvic Ultrasound: A pelvic ultrasound could be used to assess the following issues:
Both for women and men.
- Kidney stones
- Urinary bladder
- Prostate gland
- To monitor the development and health of the fetus in pregnancy. Uterus
- Ovaries Fallopian tubes
Guidelines for an ultrasound testing
An ultrasound does not have any side effects since it is a non-invasive testing method. It can be used for generating real-time pictures or pictorial videos of any organs unless it is protected via a bone structure or has gas in them since the high-frequency sound waves cannot travel through these mediums.
At times, during transabdominal ultrasounds, a local anesthetic or sedative can be utilised when the patient complains of extreme pain. Nonetheless, the test itself has no side effects or any aftercare suggestions. Though, antibiotics can be prescribed by the doctor to avoid infection if the ultrasound wand is inserted into the body for the imaging.
There are certain rules or guidelines which are suggested:
- Most ultrasounds do not require any kind of fasting. However, when the blood vessels ought to be monitored during the ultrasound of the arteries or veins, the doctor might suggest fasting.
- Before a pre void and post-void imaging, you are not allowed to pee.
- Do not wear any jewellery during the ultrasound testing. This is because the metal can interfere in the path of the echo of the sound waves.
- You should ask your doctor whether you are allowed to take your regular medicines or not.
Ultrasound is a widely applicable testing technique. When conducted with accuracy and advanced machines, it can work as a lifesaver. For such a crucial test, you must only choose the best of the best laboratories like the TruScan Diagnostic Centre. The centre follows all the ethical guidelines laid by the authorities and always walks an extra mile for their patients. Thus, do give the facility a chance if it is feasible for you.